|Tyne Bridge, Newcastle Upon Tyne|
Newcastle Upon Tyne is an historic city in Tyne and Wear about 65 mile south of the Scottish border. The city is located on the banks of the River Tyne which is spanned by a number of bridges including the iconic Tyne Bridge. Newcastle is easy to get either by train or car. It is a 40 minute train ride from Berwick-Upon-Tweed or about 1hr 20 minutes from Paxton via the A1.
Newcastle is a vibrant city and the quayside and town centre are full of bars and restaurants.The town centre is a mix of modern and old, from the large shopping centre to the historic castle and town walls. Newcastle has a metro and a large railway station with trains to London, Scotland, the South West and the North West of England. The city is home to Newcastle United Football Club at at James' Park which sits proudly overlooking the city. The city also hosts concerts and music events and has a large hospital and University. Newcastle is a fantastic place to visit, with so many things to see and do this friendly city will keep you busy for days.
the original settlement on the site developed around the Roman settlement, "Pons Aellus" (Hadrian's Bridge), a Roman fort and bridge across the River Tyne. However, Newcastle was named after the wooden castle erected by Robert Curthose in 1080. The town became known as "Novum Castellum", meaning New Castle.
After the Romans left in the 5th century the settlement became part of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria. suffering the effects off numerous conflicts with the Danes. In 1080 Robrt Curthose, the eldest son of William the conqueror recognised the town's strategic position and erected a wooden castle. The town began to be known as "Novum Castellum", which later became Newcastle. In 1087 the castle was replaced by a stone structure which was rebuilt in 1172. In the 13th century a high stone wall was built around the town to defend against Scottish attacks during the border wars.
During the 14th century the expanding town became an important centre for the wool trade and in 1400 was made a county town. The town continued to flourish and in the16th century the port was developed and shipyards built lower down the river. The town became on of the worlds largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. Newcastle's monopoly in the coal trade helped it to prosper and develop into a major town.
It is estimated that in the 1600's 7,000 of the town's 20,000 residents died from the plague. The town however strengthened and thrived and by the 18th century was the country's fourth largest printing centre. In 1854 the 'Great Fire of Newcastle and Gateshead" spread through the town with devastating effect. A large amount of properties were destroyed and 53 people killed. In 1882 Newcastle was granted the status of "City". It became an important centre during the industrial revolution when shipbuilding and heavy engineering resulted in properity and subsequent urbanisation. Newcastle was one of the first cities in the world to be lit up by electric lighting.
|St James' Park|
The remains of Newcastle Castle are situated in the centre of Newcastle Upon Tyne. All that remans today are the medieval Castle Keep and the Gatehouse, known as the Black Gate. In Roman times the site housed a fort and settlement, called Pons Aeilus which guarded a bridge over the River Tyne. This was replaced by a stone keep in the 12th century and the construction of town walls a century later.
|The Black Gate|